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Part 4 – Intervention activities to support blending

Many intervention activities are provided for developing the skill of blending, including auditory blending.

 

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  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that need to be learnt. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - reading - colour

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that that the children need to learn for reading. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w - print

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that that the children need to learn for reading. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - reading - color - print

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that the children need to learn for reading. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that the children need to learn how to write and spell correctly. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps. The worksheet provides the necessary practice.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - writing - colour

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that the children need to learn how to write and spell correctly. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps. The worksheet provides the necessary practice.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w - print

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that the children need to learn how to write and spell correctly. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps. The worksheet provides the necessary practice.

  • Step 6 - Tricky Words - writing - color - print

    The Step 6 tricky words are frequently used words that the children need to learn how to write and spell correctly. It works well to teach them in a similar way to those in the previous steps. The worksheet provides the necessary practice.

  • Spelling Patterns

    As there are not so many words that use the next alternative spellings it is easier for the children to learn them in groups of words. There are ten words provided for each alternative spelling.

  • Spelling Patterns - print

    As there are not so many words that use the next alternative spellings it is easier for the children to learn them in groups of words. There are ten words provided for each alternative spelling.

  • Letter sounds in Steps 1 - 5.

    This provides a simple guide to the letter sounds that are taught in Steps 1 - 5.

  • Word Bank for Steps 1 - 5

    Words are provided in the order of teaching the letter sounds. As each new letter sound is taught more words that use the new letter sound, and the previously taught ones, become available.

  • Teachers' Word Bank for Steps 1 - 5

    Lists of words are provided in the order of teaching the letter sounds. This is useful for teachers who would like to prepare their own materials.

  • Overview Chart

    This chart provides a simple overview of the teaching in Steps 1 - 6.

  • Teacher's Word Bank for Steps 1-5

    Lists of words are provided in the order of teaching the letter sound. This is particularly useful as it provides words each time a new letter sound is taught.

  • Words for Steps 1-5 - blending practice for children

    Words, printed in squares, are provided in the order of teaching the letter sounds. These are particularly useful for blending practice.

  • Step 1 Letter Sounds

    The first 18 letter sounds taught in Step 1. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters or for word building.

  • Step 1 Letter Sounds - print letters

    The first 18 letter sounds taught in Step 1. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters or for word building.

  • Step 2 - Letter Sounds

    The next 12 letter sounds taught in Step 2 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters or for word building.

  • Step 2 - Letter Sounds - print letters

    The next 12 letter sounds taught in Step 2 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters or for word building.

  • Step 2 - Letter Formation - b&w

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 2 - Letter Formation - colour

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 2 - Letter Formation - b&w - print letters

    On these sheets the children are able to practice forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 2 - Letter Formation - color - print letters

    On these sheets the children are able to practice forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 2 - Word Bank

    The words from the Step 2 Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 2 - Word Bank - print letters

    The words from the Step 2 Word Bank can be printed on colored card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 2 - Phrases - b&w

    The Step 2 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. This is a little more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 2 - Phrases - colour

    The Step 2 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. This is a little more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 2 - Phrases - b&w - print letters

    The Step 2 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. This is a little more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 2 - Phrases - color - print letters

    The Step 2 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. This is a little more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 2 - Dictation Words - b&w

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 2 - Dictation Words - colour

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 2 - Dictation Words - b&w - print letters

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 2 - Dictation Words - color - print letters

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 3 - Letter Sounds

    The next 12 letter sounds taught in Step 3 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters or for word building.

  • Step 3 - Letter Sounds - print letters

    The next 12 letter sounds taught in Step 3 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters or for word building.

  • Step 3 - Letter Formation - b&w

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 3 - Letter Formation - colour

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 3 - Letter Formation - b&w - print letters

    On these sheets the children are able to practice forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 3 - Letter Formation - color - print letters

    On these sheets the children are able to practice forming the next 12 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 3 - Capital Letters

    The capital letters taught in Step 3 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters.

  • Step 3 - Letter Formation - capitals - b&w

    On these sheets the children are able to practice forming the capital letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 3 - Letter Formation - capitals - colour

    On these sheets the children are able to practice forming the capital letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 3 - Word Bank

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 3 - Word Bank - print letters

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 3 - Phrases - b&w

    The Step 3 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. They are slightly more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 3 - Phrases - colour

    The Step 3 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. They are slightly more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 3 - Phrases - b&w - print letters

    The Step 3 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. They are slightly more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 3 - Phrases - color - print letters

    The Step 3 phrases can be printed on card, cut up and used for reading practice. They are slightly more challenging than reading single words. It helps to prepare the children for reading sentences.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - reading - colour

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - reading - color - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - writing - colour

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 3 - Tricky Words - writing - color - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 3 - Question Sentences

    It is important to give children reading material that they can decode for themselves. Often they feel that books are too hard for them. These Question Sentences can help to fill the gap. They are sometimes amusing and provide another source of reading practice.

  • Step 3 - Question Sentences - print letters

    It is important to give children reading material that they can decode for themselves. Often they feel that books are too hard for them. These Question Sentences can help to fill the gap. They are sometimes amusing and provide another source of reading practice.

  • Step 3 - Sentences

    These sentences use the 42 letter sounds and tricky words 1-20. They provide more reading practice. Use in a similar way to the Question Sentences.

  • Step 3 - Sentences - print letters

    These sentences use the 42 letter sounds and tricky words 1-20. They provide more reading practice. Use in a similar way to the Question Sentences.

  • Step 3 - Dictation Words - b&w

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 3 - Dictation Words - colour

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 3 - Dictation Words - b&w - print letters

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 3 - Dictation Words - color - print letters

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. The words build up progressively until all 12 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 3 - Dictation Sentences

    These sentences use the 42 letter sounds and tricky words 1 - 20. The children write the sentences from dictation either in the classroom or at home.

  • Step 4 - Letter Sounds

    The letter sounds taught in Step 4 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters.

  • Step 4 - Letter Sounds - print letters

    The letter sounds taught in Step 4 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters.

  • Step 4 - Word Bank

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 4 - Word Bank - print letters

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 4 - Sentences

    These sentences only use the letter sounds taught in Steps 1- 4 and the tricky words 1 - 40. At this stage they are particularly useful for the children who need extra practice reading sentences that use the letter sounds and tricky words taught in Step 4.

  • Step 4 - Sentences - print letters

    These sentences only use the letter sounds taught in Steps 1- 4 and the tricky words 1 - 40. At this stage they are particularly useful for the children who need extra practice reading sentences that use the letter sounds and tricky words taught in Step 4.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - reading - colour

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - reading - color - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - writing - colour

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 4 - Tricky Words - writing - color - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 4 - Dictation Words

    These words have been carefully selected and use the alternative spellings and tricky words taught in Step 4. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds.

  • Step 4 - Dictation Sentences

    These sentences have been carefully selected for dictation. They use the tricky words 1 - 40 and the first 42 letter sounds. They provide writing practice, as well as providing spelling practice of the tricky words taught in Step 4.

  • Step 1 - Letter Formation - b&w

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the first 18 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 1 - Letter Formation - colour

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the first 18 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 1 - Letter Formation - b&w - print letters

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the first 18 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 1 - Letter Formation - color - print letters

    On these sheets the children are able to practise forming the first 18 letters correctly by following the dots.

  • Step 1 - Word Bank

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 1 - Word Bank - print letters

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on colored card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 1 - Dictation Words - b&w

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. They progressively build up until all 18 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 1 - Dictation Words - colour

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. They progressively build up until all 18 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 1 - Dictation Words - b&w - print letters

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. They progressively build up until all 18 letter sounds are used.

  • Step 1 - Dictation Words - color - print letters

    These words have been carefully selected. The children should be able to spell the dictated words correctly by listening for the sounds in the words and writing letters to represent the sounds. They progressively build up until all 18 letter sounds are used.

  • Writing Sheets - plain b&w

    Lines on the writing sheets have been provided in two sizes. Sometimes younger children need a larger space between the lines. The lines will help the children to develop neat handwriting.

  • Writing Sheet - colour

    Lines on the writing sheets have been provided in two sizes. Sometimes younger children need a larger space between the lines. The lines will help the children to develop neat handwriting.

  • Writing Sheet - large - b&w

    Lines on the writing sheets have been provided in two sizes. Sometimes younger children need a larger space between the lines. The lines will help the children to develop neat handwriting.

  • Writing Sheet - large - colour

    Lines on the writing sheets have been provided in two sizes. Sometimes younger children need a larger space between the lines. The lines will help the children to develop neat handwriting.

  • Step 5 - Letter Sounds

    The letter sounds taught in Step 5 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters.

  • Step 5 - Letter Sounds - print letters

    The letter sounds taught in Step 5 are provided. They can be used as flash cards to help the children remember the sounds linked to the letters.

  • Step 5 - Word Bank

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on coloured card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 5 - Word Bank - print letters

    The words from the Word Bank can be printed on colored card, cut up and used for blending practice. As each new letter sound is taught then more words become available for blending.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - reading - colour

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - reading - b&w - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - reading - color - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. They can be blended but give the wrong pronunciation. The children have to remember the correct pronunciation and learn the unusual letter-sound correspondences.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - writing - colour

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - writing - b&w - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 5 - Tricky Words - writing - color - print letters

    Tricky Words are frequently used words that either use alternative spellings that have not been taught yet or they are irregular. The children have to learn the awkward part for spelling. These sheets allow the children to practise writing the tricky words, using the Look, Cover, Write & Check method.

  • Step 5 - Sentences

    These sentences only use the letter sounds taught in Steps 1- 5 and the tricky words 1 - 60. At this stage they are particularly useful for the children who need extra practice reading sentences that use the letter sounds and tricky words taught in Step 5.

  • Step 5 - Sentences - print letters

    These sentences only use the letter sounds taught in Steps 1- 4 and the tricky words 1 - 40. At this stage they are particularly useful for the children who need extra practice reading sentences that use the letter sounds and tricky words taught in Step 4.

  • Korean words

    If unfamiliar with the Korean language, try memorising these words. Whole-word learning is not easy!

  • Letter-sound knowledge - Steps 1-3

    Print this sheet and ask the child to say the sounds for the letters, recording any that are not known.

  • Letter-sound knowledge - Steps 1-3 - print letters

    Print this sheet and ask the child to say the sounds for the letters, recording any that are not known.

  • Letter-sound knowledge - Steps 4-5

    Print this sheet and ask the child to say the sounds for the letters, recording any that are not known.

  • Letter-sound knowledge - Steps 4-5 - print letters

    Print this sheet and ask the child to say the sounds for the letters, recording any that are not known.

  • Tricky words - Steps 3-6

    Print this sheet and ask the children to read the tricky words, recording any that are not known. Use dictation to find out how well they can spell them.

  • Tricky words - Steps 3-6 - print letters

    Print this sheet and ask the children to read the tricky words, recording any that are not known. Use dictation to find out how well they can spell them.

  • Unusual words - suitable for testing the skill of blending

    These words are not frequently read by young children, so they are suitable for testing how well a child can blend unknown words. The words start with letter sounds the children learnt initially and progress to the more unusual letter sounds in Step 5.

  • Teaching Children to Read and Write - English alphabetic code

    Alphabetic-code charts are extremely useful for developing an understanding of how our complex alphabetic code works.

  • Debbie's Simple Alphabetic Code

    Alphabetic-code charts are extremely useful for developing an understanding of how our complex, alphabetic code works. Debbie Hepplewhite has made an excellent chart. There are several other charts available on her website - a link has been provided to her website www.phonicsinternational.co

  • Teaching Children to Read and Write - English alphabetic code

    Alphabetic-code charts are extremely useful for developing an understanding of how our complex, alphabetic code works.

  • Debbie Hepplewhite's English alphabetic code

    Alphabetic-code charts are extremely useful for developing an understanding of how our complex, alphabetic code works. Debbie Hepplewhite has made an excellent chart. There are several other charts available on her website - a link has been provided to her website www.phonicsinternational.com

  • TCRW - English alphabetic-code chart

    English alphabetic-code charts are particularly useful for adults who are interested in the many alternative spellings that are used in the English code.

  • Debbie Hepplewhite's English alphabetic-code chart

    Debbie Hepplewhite has put a great amount of detail in this chart. It is an excellent teaching aid. A link has been provided to her website, which has several other types of charts available.

  • TCRW - English alphabetic-code chart

    English alphabetic-code charts are particularly useful for adults who are interested in the many alternative spellings that are used in the English code.

  • Spelling Rules O.K.

    These pages can be downloaded and made into a booklet. On some printers each page has to be printed one at a time and back-to-back.

  • Words ending in <er> with an /er/ sound

    This is a useful set of words for blending practice when the /er/ sound has been taught - in Step 3.

  • Words ending in <y> giving an /ee/ sound

    This is a useful set of words for blending practice when the with an /ee/ sound has been taught - in Step 4.

  • Words ending in <le> with an /ool/ sound

    This is a useful set of words for blending practice when the with an /ool/ sound has been taught - in Step 6.

  • Word Bank - Steps 1-5

    A word bank is useful for writing decodable stories.